The Aztecs originally belonged to lake Texcoco. In 1200 AD they started expanding their empire and till 1500AD they ruled throughout the central and southern Mexico. They used to speak Nahuatl Language. At it’s peak time Aztecs were known for their rich religious and cultural heritage. They achieved huge success in the field of architecture and fine art. The knowledge of the Aztec culture was gained from many sources. Aztecs used to write on bark leaves which is the most important source for their civilization. Secondly excavation done in many archaeological sites like Templo Mayor in Tenochtitlan and further descriptions provided by Spanish visitors and clergy expanded our knowledge of their civilization.
Aztec capital was Tenochtitlan which was the largest and most populated city in America at that time. City was highly planned having Temples , Monument , Public Buildings in it’s center. It was having bridges which ensured smooth transportation of canoes. Aztecs were great architect who build an extensive network of roads and canals. Besides common people there were beggars, thief and prostitutes in the city. Spanish noted that the city was twice the size of Seville in Spain. Tlatelolco was the largest market in capital where goods throughout the nation were exchanged. The city was founded in 1325 AD and was destroyed after Spaniards conquered it in 1521AD.
Aztecs were having highly organized administration; they had one king, few nobles who ruled cities and worked as judges and priest who did religious ceremonies. They built huge pyramid like temples for their chief God Huitzilopochtli. They used to sacrifice slaves for getting eternal life. Other Gods of Aztec were Tezcatlipoca (God of Power) and Quetzalcoatl (God of Learning).
Fall of Aztec Empire
In February 1519 a Spanish general Hernan Cortes in search of Gold came to America. His search brought him to Tenochtitlan which was the capital of Aztec empire. He came with the most advanced weapons which no one among Aztecs had seen before.
Montezuma who was the last king of Aztec empire offered gold to Cortes. Hernan Cortes took gold but made Montezuma his prisoner. His army of 500 people captured a city having population of more than 200,000 people. Later on there were many battles fought between the locals and Europeans. At last Spaniards with the help of Tlaxcalan warriors of King Xicotencatl the younger won on August 13, 1521. The Spanish renamed Tenochtitlan as Mexico City.