In 1947 First War of Kashmir took place:
- India took regions including Jammu, Kashmir Valley and Ladakh. Jammu is Hindu majority region (66% Hindu) , Kashmir valley is Muslim majority region (95% Muslim) and Ladakh is Buddhist majority region (50% Buddhist).
- Pakistan took Northern Areas (Gilgit Region) and Azad Kashmir Regions. Both the regions have Muslim majority (99% Muslims).
The most sensitive region is primarily the Kashmir Valley of India. Pakistan supports the demand for Kashmir’s Independence and India is not in the favor of independence and considers Kashmir as its ‘integral part’.
Kashmir problem is highly complicated. India and Pakistan have fought 3 major wars on Kashmir in the year 1947, 1965 and 1999. Both the nations have strong sentiments attached with Kashmir.
Numerous solutions are suggested for Kashmir:
- The Status Quo Solution
- Under this Line of Control or Ceasefire Line between Indian administrated Kashmir and Pakistan administrated Kashmir will be turned as international border.
- This solution to some extent is accepted by India.
- Countries like US and UK also support the idea.
- Pakistan and Kashmir Valley activist reject the idea.
- Indian administrated Kashmir to Merge in Pakistan
- The regions Jammu, Kashmir valley and Ladakh to be merged in Pakistan
- Pakistan accept it as best solution for Kashmir.
- India rejects this idea completely.
- Hindus of Jammu and Buddhists of Ladakh are not interested.
- Pakistan administrated Kashmir to Merge in India
- Regions Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas to be Merged in India.
- Inhabitant of Pakistani Kashmir have shown no such desire.
- This solution may never ensure stability as the inhabitants of Kashmir Valley also reject it.
- Pakistan Government will never agree.
- Independence of whole Kashmir (Indian and Pakistani Regions)
- Forming a whole Kashmir nation by joining northern areas and azad Kashmir of Pakistan and Jammu, Kashmir valley and Ladakh regions of India.
- Both the nations will not give up their territory.
- Voting for Independence will be opposed by both the nations.
- People of these regions who are attached with their nations will not accept it. Hindus of Jammu, Muslims of Azad Kashmir have shown no such desire to leave their nation.
- Independence of some part of Indian and Pakistani Kashmir
- It include merger of Azad Kashmir of Pakistan and Kashmir valley of India and excludes Jammu and Ladakh regions of India and Northern Areas of Pakistan.
- Kashmiri activist who demand freedom of complete region reject it.
- Both India and Pakistan have not proposed any plan to merge both the parts and make it an Independent Nation
- Chenab Formula
- The land in North of Chenab river in India to be given independence or to be merged with Pakistan
- It will address the demand of Muslim majority regions to get independence as it include whole Kashmir valley and Muslim majority regions of Jammu
- India which currently holds 84000 miles square of land will only have 3000 miles square land after executing this plan. It is impossible to see what benefit India could derive from the transfer of so much land or would ever agree to such a solution. Moreover, Ladakh is also given independence under this plan which is not acceptable to India.
- Independence of Kashmir Valley from India
- As per the BBC News it is regarded by some international analyst as one of the “Best Solution” for Kashmir.
- It is meeting the demand of all Kashmir activists who want independence from Indian Union since 1980’s and especially after the starting of Kashmir insurgency in 1989.
- If elections are held in present day scenario the region is more likely to vote in favor of independence.
- Kashmir Valley may sustain through tourism, handicrafts and agriculture.
- India may not agree to lose its territory or hold any election for independence.
- Region is not economically viable. Kashmir Valley is having area of 1800 square miles, it lacks natural resources, and it is landlocked and completely snowbound in winter.
Present Situation of Kashmir
Demand of Kashmiri activists
There are 700000 Indian troops in Kashmir in response to Militancy that started in Indian administrated Kashmir since 1989. The activist demand to reduce the number of troops. Further demands include change in Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act, 1958 which gave special power to armed forces.
Kashmir unrest 2010
In June 2010 Hurriyat conference under the leadership of Syed Ali Shah Geelani and Mirwaiz Umar Farooq called for civil disobedience. They demanded complete demilitarization of Kashmir. The reason cited by them was Human Right abuse by Indian troops. The movement started many protest throughout Indian Part of Kashmir.
Current stand on Kashmir Issue
- Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh after Kashmir disturbances in 2010 stated that his government is willing to grant Kashmir Autonomy Status.
- Pakistan states that Kashmir is a disputed territory whose final status must be determined by the people of Kashmir.
- Kashmir’s Independence Activists state that Kashmir should be independent of both India and Pakistan.