Second Kashmir War – Reasons for Indo-Pak War 1965

After first war of Kashmir in 1947 India got majority of Kashmir including fertile valley regions. The scrubland and sparsely populated region was acquired by Pakistan. Pakistani government in order to acquire complete control over Kashmir executed operation Gibraltar in August 1965…

Kashmir Map - India Pakistan War 1965

Kashmir Map – India Pakistan War 1965

Main reasons for the war:

  • Pakistan wanted Kashmir free from Indian Rule
  • India was defeated in India-China War 1962 and Armed Forces of India were weak.
  • Death of Nehru in 1964 further weakened India.

Operation Gibraltar

As per the Operation Gibraltar, many of the Pakistani forces entered Kashmir secretly. The main aim of the operation was to free Kashmir from Indian rule. The operation was a failure due to lack of co-ordination. After this operation Indian Army retaliated resulting in war.

India Pakistan War of 1965 - Pakistan's President Ayub Khan and Others

India Pakistan War of 1965 – Pakistan’s President Ayub Khan and Others

Major Features of the Battle

  • It was the largest Tank Battle in the History, after World War – II. 720 Indian Tanks and 756 Pakistani Tanks participated in the battle.
  • The War saw largest amount of troops in Kashmir since 1947.
  • The war extended for 5 weeks and 7000 soldiers were killed in the battlefield.

Outcome of war

Times magazine reported ‘India held 690 mi2 of Pakistan’s territory while Pakistan held 250 mi2 of Indian territory’. Both the nation later returned their acquired land after the Treaty of Tashkent. There was no permanent territorial change.

Indian Army - 1965 India Pakistan War

Treaty of Tashkent (Tashkent Declaration)

War ended on September 23, 1965 after intervention of the UN. A peace treaty was signed in Tashkent, Uzbekistan (Former USSR) on 10 January 1966. Prime minister of India Sri. Lal Bahadur Shashtri and President of Pakistan Field Marshal Ayub Khan agreed on the following points

  • Forces will return from their Occupied Territory
  • No interference in Internal Affairs
  • Economic and Diplomatic relation to be restored
  • Good relation to be established between both the nations
Ironically, Six years later India and Pakistan got into another War in 1971 which resulted in the partition of Eastern Pakistan (now Bangladesh) and Western Pakistan.

One Comment

  1. I don’t think so India were weaken in 1965 war ,figure on ground were in the favor of India .

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