Mu’izz ad-Din Muhammad (Muhammad of Ghor) also known as Sultan Shahab-Ud-din Muhammad Ghuri or Muhammad Ghauri or Mohammad Ghori was born in 1149 AD in the region of Ghuri in Central Afghanistan. Muhammad of Ghori was the son of Sultan Baha al-din Sam and brother of Ghiyath-ad-din Muhammad, the ruler of Ghurid Empire.
Early Life of Muhammad of Ghori
Mu’izz ad-Din Muhammad started his career as a general under Ghiyath-ad-din Muhammad. Muhammad of Ghori expanded the empire up to Ghazni, Khwarezmid and Khorasan. Then he turned towards India. He made himself as a fearless and strategic warrior. Muhammad of Ghori was interested in culture and patronized scholars like Fakhr al-Din al-Razi and Nizami Uruzi.
Rise of Muhammad of Ghori
Muhammad of Ghori came to power after re-capturing Ghazni from Oghuz Turks. In 1173 AD, after the death of his brother he came to power. In that time Ghorid Empire was extremely poor. Mu’izz ad-Din Muhammad thought of a new source of Income and India drew his attention as the richest country in the sub-continent.
Ruling India – Most strategic step of Muhammad of Ghori
The first step of Muhammad Ghauri invasion of India was capturing Multan in 1175 AD. He then moved Southwards, captured Uch region and build a castle there in 1178 AD. Ghori suffered heavy losses in the battle against Gujarat under the rule of Raja Bhimdev II. Raja Bhimdev II mother Queen Naikidevi controlled the army of Gujarat. As a result, Muhammad Ghauri had to return back to homeland.
Later, in 1181 AD his capturing of Lahore and constructing a castle at Sialkot, became a game changer for Ghorid Empire. Lahore was the capital of old Ghaznavid Empire which was captured by Muhammad of Ghori and his army.
Battles between Prithviraj Chauhan and Muhammad of Ghori
In 1191 AD Muhammad of Ghori attacked the Northern part of India which was ruled by Chauhan Dynasty under the rule of Prithviraj Chauhan. The First battle of Tarain held between them and Prithviraj Chauhan won the battle gloriously.
An year later, in 1192 AD, Muhammad of Ghori came back with a stronger army of 120,000 soldiers who were proceeding through Khyber Pass for the Second battle of Tarain. Prithviraj Chauhan and his Hindu allied rulers made an army of 300,000 soldiers to defend Muhammad of Ghori. This time Chauhan Rajput Army was defeated as they were attacked from all the directions. There is a story of Prithviraj Chauhan being betrayed by fellow Jaichand who joined Muhammad Ghauri for personal interests. Unfortunately, Muhammad of Ghori assassinated Jaichand when his means was finished.
Conquests of Mohammad Ghori
Muhammad of Ghori strategic warfare and strong determination made him a man of steel. After the Battle of Tarain he captured almost all of Northern India extending from Rajasthan to Bengal. At the time of returning to the west he instated the powers of Delhi region to his Turk slave Qutub-Ud-din Aibak to rule up to Bengal. In 1193 AD Qutub-Ud-din Aibak returned to Delhi after capturing Ayodha and Bengal.
Impact of Ghauri Invasion on India
Muhammad Ghauri is credited for establishing Muslim Sultanate of Delhi. He also remembered for bringing the germs of communalism and anti-religious feelings in India.
Mu’izz ad-Din Muhammad left India in 1192 AD but continued to rule till 1206 AD. On 15th March 1206 Muhammad Ghauri was assassinated while he was offering prayer, by Khokhars in Punjab, now is in Pakistan.