The Maurya Empire ruled throughout the Indian Subcontinent. To rule such a large empire both Central and Provincial Government played a huge role. Maurya Empire was divided into four major province with their capitals at Tosali (in the east), Ujjain (in the west), Suvarnagiri (in the south), and Taxila (in the north). The Imperial Capital of Maurya was at Pataliputra (Present Day Patna, India).
King was the ultimate Head of Empire. He used to take every important execuetive and judicial decision. He was advised by his Council of Ministers called Mantriparishad. King used to control whole army and ordered Senapati (Military General) to attack. He was also had a Dharma Pravartak (Religious Messenger) to spread the message of dharma or truth.
All the Royal Princes were assigned to rule the State. They were called Kumaras and worked as the representative of the King. King used to send one of his loyal minister to help prince, they were called Mahamatyas. Prince was advised by a State Minister Council.
Chanakya (Kautilya) in his book Arthashashtra mentions about an extensive bureaucracy under Mauryan rule. The civil servants were called Adhyaksha. They use to collect taxes, manage trade, public welfare, land dealings, treasury incharge etc…
Army of the Maurya
Maurya Army was the largest standing army of its time. Megasthenes in his book Indica mention that Maurya Empire’s army composed of 600,000 Infantry, 30,000 Cavalry, and 9,000 War Elephants.
Maurya also had a spying system and intelligence agencies to know the intention of Foreign Kingdoms and to remain alerted from invasion. Ashoka adopted no-war policy. He believed that expanding empire at the cost of Human Life was insane. Ashoka, thus, maintained a large army to defend his empire and not to attack others.