Indo Parthian or the Pahlavas or the Gondopharid dynasty is considered to be the population of the North Western India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Eastern Iran during the first century AD.
At some point in later half of the 1st century BC, the Indo Parthian population was concentrated in the region of Seistan (Persia) but after the death of an important Indo-Scythian Ruler, Azes I, who was ruling Pakistan, Afghanistan and Punjab in those days, Gondophares I (The Holder of Glory) of Indo Parthian Kingdom took aggressive measures in order to get the hold of these regions.
In the process he defeated many tribal rulers in Arachosia, Sindh and Punjab and expanded Indo Parthian Kingdom’s Borders. Gondophares I could not move beyond the East of Punjab as Indo-Scythian rulers were still quite powerful beyond this point. The capital city and the residence of Gondophares I was Taxila. Ironically, Gondophares I was the only prominent ruler of Indo-Parthian Kingdom the extent of the kingdom was maximum under his rule.
Gondophares I was allegedly succeeded by his son Gondophares II Sarpedones (1 AD – 20 AD), who faced a hard time keeping the kingdom together. After his death, his cousin Abdagases I, who was also ruling a part of Indo Parthian Kingdom (Punjab & Sindh), captured whole of the Kingdom. The Indo Parthian Kingdom kept getting weaker with time and the last Indo Parthian ruler, Parcores (72 AD – 77 AD) was only left to rule over the provinces of Kandahar and Seistan. He was finally defeated by Kushan King Kujula Kadphises.
Religious faith of Indo Parthian
Indo Parthian were the followers of Ancient Greek religions. There are evidences of Ancient Zoroastrian fire temples which imply that Indo-Parthian Kings could have been the believers of Zoroastrian faith. Unfortunately there is very little evidence left about those times. Evidences suggest that the later Indo Parthian rulers such as Gondophares IV Sases could have been converted to Buddhism.
Origin of South Indian Dynasty of Pallavas
Some of the historians argue that the South Indian Kingdom of Pallavas could have had links to Indo Parthian kingdom of Indo-Iran. According to a theory the Indo Parthian may have migrated from Pakistan to the banks of River Krishna and in a span of 100 years developed into a powerful kingdom of Pallavas. Although this theory is widely rejected by most Historians as according to them Pallavas are considered to be of Tamil origin.