History before Sino-Indian War
India got its independence from British Rule in 1947. In 1949 Chinese Revolution took place and First Communist Government of China was established. India was the first nation to officially recognize the communist government of China. Both the nations had many cultural and social links and had harmonious ties.
Reasons for the War
There were three main reasons for the eruption of war between the two nations:
- Tibet Dispute: Tibet Plateau was acquired by China in the year 1950. Dalai Lama, Leader of Tibet, fled from China in the year 1959. India gave shelter to Dalai Lama. China held India responsible for anti-China activities.
- Border Dispute: The McMahon line was the border between India and China. The border line was accepted by India as official demarcation between both nations. China did not consider McMohan line as an official international border.
- Territorial Dispute: The Ladakh Region (Aksai Chin) and Arunachal Pradesh Region of India were claimed by China. Mao Zedong (Head of China) and Jawaharlal Nehru (Head of India) had many negotiations on this issue. The issue never reached a resolution.
Events during War
- On 20 October, 1962, China declared a war on India. Chinese forces conquered Arunachal Pradesh(Tawang Region) in October and Ladakh in November.
- On the Western Front the Chinese forces occupied certain regions of Aksai Chin and were stopped by the Indian forces.
- On the Eastern front the Chinese forces reached till the Brahmaputra Plains of Assam. Later after International Pressure they returned from Assam and Arunachal Pradesh.
China on 20 November 1962 declared ceasefire. As per the ceasefire both the nation agreed that:
- Chinese Forces will withdraw from North Eastern Regions of India
- Indian and Chinese forces will maintain their position in Aksai Chin and not move ahead.
Why India lost Sino-Indian War?
- Lack of coordination between the home ministry and prime minister’s office.
- Prime Minister Nehru had no idea that war might take place.
- Defence Minister, V K Krishna Menon deployed insufficient army on the front before war.
Aftermath of Sino-Indian War in India
- No confidence motion was passed against Nehru’s government in the parliament.
- Many army officers and commanders had to resign or retire.
- Defense Minister V K Krishna Menon resigned.
- Defense forces were badly hurt and became weak after the war.
- Numbers of armed troops were increased in the North East states of India and Ladakh.