The Hopewell tradition is a combination of various Native American cultures that developed around 200 BC and remained in existence till 500 AD. The Hopewell culture developed in the Eastern and Central regions of present day United States. These cultures were linguistically, culturally, socially and economically different and they were connected through a common trade network called Hopewell Exchange System. Various raw materials and exotic resources were traded from one culture to another. These raw materials were manufactured to make excellent finished goods like shell necklaces, knives, blades, projectile points etc.
Some of the most important cultures of Hopewell Tradition are :
The Armstrong Hopewell culture developed around Big Sandy River valley. Most of the artifacts regarding this culture are found in Kentucky and Virginia. They were culturally similar to Adena people.
Copena culture name is derived from metal copper and galena. Most of the artifacts regarding this culture are found in regions like Alabama, tennese, Kentucky etc. The artifacts are made from copper and galena.
Crad Orchard Culture
The crad orchard culture developed in the flood plains of ohio river. These people were very developed and some of their sites like Mann site reveal lots of artifacts related with these people. Other sites are in Indiana and Illinois.
This culture developed around 200BC and remained in existence till 500AD. The goodall culture flourished in regions like lake Michigan and Indiana. Goodall site is found in northwest Indiana.
Havana Hopewell Culture
The Havana culture developed in river valleys of missipi and Illinois river. Many of it’s artifacts and weapons are found in iowa illlnois and Missouri. They later evolved in the missipian culture with their capital at Cahokia.
Kansas City Hopewell
The Kansa Hopewell culture is mostly known for it’s mound building. Few of it’s sites are Renner Village, Trowbridge, Cloverdale sites etc. They are also known for their Hopewell style of pottery and stone tool making technique
The first evidence of these people were found in laurel Minnesota,.They were the first people who started building pottery in southern Canada and ontario. Many of the archeological sites are found in Quebec, Manitoba etc.
Marksville culture is named after Marksville site in lousiana. This culture developed in southern valley of missipi river. It later evolved in Baytown and coles creek culture.
The miller culture is located in upper Tombigbee River drainage areas of Southwestern Tennessee, Northeastern Mississippi and West central Alabama. It’s archeological site is Pinson Mounds they developed great pottery and artifacts.
The montane Hopewell culture is located in Tygart Valley area, an upper branch of the Monongahela River, of northern West Virginia. They are known for their conical mounds. This culture is related with coles creek culture.
Ohio Hopewell Culture
The Ohio Hopewell culture is located in the regions Scioto River Valley (from Columbus to Portsmouth, Ohio) and adjacent Paint Creek, centered on Chillicothe, Ohio. It is known for it’s burial sites and mounds. They are also known for their earthwork.
Point Peninsula Culture
The Point peninsula culture is located in regions like new York and Ontario. They had peculiar burial and ceremonial practices relating them with ohio valley people.
The Saugeen Complex is located in southeast shores of Lake Huron and the Bruce Peninsula, around the London area, and possibly as far east as the Grand River. These people had relation with Odawa people in Ottawa. Some of their artifacts are found from Grand River.
The Swift Creek Culture
The swift creek culture developed in south central US. It developed in 100 AD and destroyed in 7000 AD. Climatic factors were responsible for the destruction of this culture.