India Pakistan War 1947 is also called first Kashmir War. The war took place due to various historical and socio-political reasons.
Background of War
India and Pakistan got independence from Britain in august 1947. Along with them about 600 Princely States were also given Independence. These princely states either joined India or Pakistan. Hari Singh ruler of Kashmir decided not to join any of the Nations.
Reason for War
The major reasons that lead to indo pak war 1947 were:
- There was lack of trust between India and Pakistan due to events that happened during partition.
- Kashmir was a Muslim majority area ruled by a Hindu king.
- Pakistan believed that the Hindu ruler of Kashmir may merge Kashmir with India.
Starting of War
In October 1947, Tribal forces promoted by Pakistan attacked and occupied various regions of the Princely State. There was a distrust between India and Pakistan on this matter and Pakistan had a feeling that if they wont promote the tribals to occupy Kashmir and the Princely State, India will occupy Kashmir. Maharaja Hari Singh asked India for the help. To intervene in the matter of Kashmir was illegal for India because Kashmir was not part of India at that time. India gave help only on single condition that Hari Singh must merge Kashmir with India. He must sign ‘Agreement to the accession of the Princely State to India.’
Hari Singh knew that the tribal forces have reached till the outskirts of Srinagar (capital of Kashmir) and they could have reached Srinagar at any time. Hari Singh therefore signed the Agreement.
Indian Forces reached Srinagar on October 27 1947. Pakistani tribal forces, till that time, had conquered Northern Regions of Chitral and Gilgit and Eastern regions like Punch, Muzzaffarabad. The forces of Pakistan were heading toward Srinagar. Indian army along with Jammu & Kashmir National Conference started war against Pakistan.
Outcomes of War
The war extended till December 31, 1948. A ceasefire line under the leadership of United Nations was formed which divided Indian administrated Kashmir from Pakistani administrated Kashmir.
Pakistan took control of about one-third of Kashmir ( North-Western scrublands and Mountainous Tribal Regions)
India took control of Kashmir Valley, Ladakh and Jammu.
None of the nations achieved their ultimate goal therefore no one got Victorious.