The Anglo – Powhatan Wars were a series of battles fought between the Native and the Colonists. The major reason for the war was expansion done by the colonists and the retaliation by the natives. There were mainly three battles fought between English and Powhatan. First between the years 1609 to 1614, Second between 1622 to 1632 and the Third between 1644 to 1646. The battles ended when the boundry was clearly defined between the territory of English and the Natives. These lines were not usually crossed and only under special circumstances or official business agreement this line was crossed. The wars officially ended in 1677 after the treaty of middle plantation.
Events that led to starting of the Anglo Powhatan War
In 1607, English established their first permanent colony in the America, Jamestown, Virginia. They had to suffer various problems in the newly developed colony like various local disease, shortage of food supply. So it was almost impossible to live in the newly developed region without the help of natives. The natives expected the colonists to help those making metal tools, while colonist wanted to make the natives their servants. Captain John Smith who was leading the colonist underestimated the power of natives and started expanding his territory. He was captured by the natives and later released by the interference of Pocahontas, the daughter of Tribal Chief.
The situation between the Natives and English got worse after a drought in 1609 in the English Colonial region. The English expected that the natives will provide them corn. The natives refused to provide them food supply. On August 9, 1610 George Percy who was English military men along with his 70 soldiers attacked in the Native’s territory.
He burned cornfield, destroyed house of the tribal people and killed men, women and children. The series of battle started after this event. The war ended when Opechancanough, leader of the natives was killed in 1646.
Treaty of Middle Plantation 1677
The battles ended in 1646 for almost three decade there was peace situation between the tribes and the English people. In 1677 Cockacoeske, Powhatan’s matrilineal successor signed a treaty with English. According to the treaty native territory was well defined, all the Indian rulers were given equal status and they were given hunting rights outside their boundary. Peaceful trade relations established between the Natives and the English.